At this time, there are two popular battery technologies; these are lead acid (PbA) and Lithium (Li) Batteries. Each of these are discussed below.
Lead Acid batteries are the most common type of battery; they have been used for the last hundred years. The industry is mature. Lead acid batteries are the most recycled commodity with about 97% of batteries being recycled.1 This compares to only 55% of aluminium cans.
Batteries for on-road EV use are made as 6V, 8V, and 12V batteries. This allows one to choose different batteries for the same voltage. For example, you can use 12-12V batteries, 18-8V batteries, or 24-6V batteries in order to have a 144V system. The limitation is the space available and the payload capacity of the vehicle to be converted.
The advantage of PbA batteries is:
• Readily available from reputable manufacturers
• Available in different sizes
The disadvantages are:
• High Weight to Power Density
• Energy Density
1Battery Council International